Javascript


Javascript

Javascript is not related to Java. However, they are written using similar syntax. A script does not require any compilation because it is interpreted. The main advantage is that it only requires the Internet browser and it can run in any platform. Some of the disadvantages are the speed; usually Javascript is very slow. All errors occur during at run time, it is difficult to debug and find errors.

Problem 1
Indicate what needs to be installed in a computer to run a: (a) Program written in Java, (b) Program written in C#, (c) Program written in C++, (d) Script in Javascript.

Problem 2
Work on teams on the following questions: (a) What is Javascript? (b) When should I use Javascript? (c) What are the advantages of Javascript? (Mention at least two). (d) What are the disadvantages of Javascript? (Mention at least two).

Tip
The Javascript code runs in the client (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome...). Therefore, it has only access to very few resources. For instance, it does not have access to the hard drive; it has very limited access to the Internet. Javascript allows passing some computing load to the client. However, some tasks must be executed in the server.

Tip
All control functions (for, while, do-while, switch, if, if-else, break, continue, return, case, ...) are used in the same way they are used in in Java, C++ or C#. Note that Javascript is case sensitive.

var

var allows declaring any type of variable. The data type is determined at run time. Thus, var can be an integer, a double value, a text string, a textbox, etc.

document.getElementById

Any time a GUI element (textbox, button, etc. ) from the web page is required in the program, the user must call the function getElementById to return the control or web element. This function takes the ID of the control. This means that all controls in a web page must have an ID and a name, see Problem 1. Note that the ID is used by the Web client from Javascript (locally), while the name is used by the Web Server.

Debug in IE

From the menu Tools > Internet Options > Advanced > Browsing , unchecked Disable Script Debugging (IE). Close Internet Explorer and open it.

DebugIE

Problem 3
Create a simple calculator to add to numbers that runs completely in the browser (it does not require a Web Server to work). Write the following code using notepad. Observe that a regular Web page uses a < input type="submit" / >. On the other hand, a button in Javascript must use: < input type="button" />. Observe that each textbox has two ways to identify it, the name of the textbox will be sent to the web server, the textbox ID will be used for Javascript. Be sure to write correctly document.getElementById(...). You may press F12 to activate the debugging tools.

SaveCalculator

Calculator

Calculator.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Calculator</title>
     <script>
     function Calculate()
     {
          // alert("Calculate");
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          var tby = document.getElementById("tbxY");
          var tbResult = document.getElementById("tbxResult");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          if (tby == null) return;
          if (tbResult == null) return;
          // alert("Null values");
          if (tbx.value == null) return null;
          if (tby.value == null) return null;
          var x = parseFloat(tbx.value);
          var y = parseFloat(tby.value);
          var result = x+y;
          tbResult.value = result.toString();
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <input type="text" id="tbxX" name="tbxX" />+
     <input type="text" id="tbxY" name="tbxY" />=
     <input type="text" id="tbxResult" name="tbxResult" readonly=true />
     <input type="button" id="btCalculate" value="Calculate" onclick="Calculate()" />
</body>
</html>


ID

Each element in a web page must have a unique ID. This ID is uses in the document.getElementById to retrieve any element in a web page. On the other hand, the web server will use the name of the element in the web page. To avoid confusion, you should set the ID and name of any element of a web page to the same value.

Problem 4
Save the document of the previous problem as ResetCalculator.htm to test a Reset button. Observe that the HTML code includes a form tag to group the textboxes and make the Reset button to work.

ResetCalculator.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Calculator</title>
     <script>
     function Calculate()
     {
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          var tby = document.getElementById("tbxY");
          var tbResult = document.getElementById("tbxResult");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          if (tby == null) return;
          if (tbResult == null) return;
          //
          if (tbx.value == null) return null;
          if (tby.value == null) return null;
          //
          var x = parseFloat(tbx.value);
          var y = parseFloat(tby.value);
          var result = x+y;
          tbxResult.value = result.toString();
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <form>
          <input type="text" id="tbxX">+
          <input type="text" id="tbxY">=
          <input type="text" id="tbxResult">
          <input type="button" id="btCalculate" value="Calculate" onclick="Calculate()">
          <input type="reset" value="Reset">
     </form>
</body>
</html>


ResetCalculatorRun

Problem 5
Create a document called EStore.htm to test the disabled property of a textbox.

EStoreRun

EStore.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>EStore</title>
     <script>
     function Run()
     {
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          tbx.disabled=true;
     }
     function Activar()
     {
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          tbx.disabled=false;
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <input type="text" id="tbxX" name="tbxX" value="Hello" />
     <input type="button" id="btRun" name="btRun" value="Run" onclick="Run()" />
     <input type="button" id="btEnable" name="btEnable"value="Enable" onclick="Activar()" />
</body>
</html>


Problem 6
Create a document called Ghost.htm to test the visibility style. Observe that the object.style is the CSS object to manipulate the appearance of the object.

GhostRun1

GhostRun2

Ghost.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Ghost</title>
     <script>
     function See()
     {
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          tbx.style.visibility = 'visible';
     }
     function Hide()
     {
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          tbx.style.visibility = 'hidden';
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <input type="text" id="tbxX" name="tbxX" value="Hello" />
     <input type="button" id="btSee" name="btSee" value="See" onclick="See()" />
     <input type="button" id="btHide" name="btHide"value="Hide" onclick="Hide()" />
</body>
</html>


Problem 7
Create a document called Bottle.htm to test the name property of a button. The example takes the name of the button to set the value of the textbox.

BottleRun

Bottle.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Bottle</title>
     <script>
     function Run()
     {
          var buttonRun = document.getElementById("btRun");
          if (buttonRun == null) return;
          //
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          //
          tbx.value = buttonRun.name;
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <input type="text" id="tbxX" name ="tbxX" />
     <input type="button" id="btRun" name="btRun" value="Run" onclick="Run()" />
</body>
</html>


Tip
Most web elements have the following properties: name, value, style and disabled. Web input elements have the type property. Additionally, the style property supports all CSS options to control the appearance of the element.

Problem 8
Create a document called Fly.htm to write a web page using document.write from javascript. In this case, the web page is empty. When the page is open, Javascript writes the web page content, then, the web page is displayed. Thus, an entire web page can be created (or modified) from Javascript. Avoid this technique, unless it is necessary.

FlyRun

Fly.htm
<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
     document.write("<h1>Hello World!</h1>");
     document.write("<h2>Hello World!</h2>");
     document.write("<h3>Hello World!</h3>");
</script>
</body>
</html>


Problem 9
Create a document called Who.htm to modify an existing span tag in a web page when a button is clicked. Observe that in this case, the varInfo variable is a span tag.

WhoRun1

WhoRun2

Who.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Who</title>
     <script>
     function Calculate()
     {
          var spanInfo = document.getElementById("info");
          if (spanInfo == null) return;
          //
          spanInfo.innerHTML = "Hola...";
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <span id="info">Hello!</span>
     <input type="button" id="btCalculate" value="Calculate" onclick="Calculate()" />
</body>
</html>


Problem 10
Create a document called ChangeImage.htm to modify an image when the mouse is over.

ChangeImageRun1

ChangeImageRun2

ChangeImage.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>ChangeImage</title>
     <script>
     function ShowOne()
     {
          var imgPhoto = document.getElementById("Photo");
          if (imgPhoto == null) return;
          //
          imgPhoto.src = "one.gif";
     }
     function ShowTwo()
     {
          var imgPhoto = document.getElementById("Photo");
          if (imgPhoto == null) return;
          //
          imgPhoto.src = "two.gif";
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body>
     <img id="Photo" src="one.gif" onmouseover="ShowTwo()" onmouseout="ShowOne()">
</body>
</html>


Problem 11
Create a document called Message.htm to display a message box from javascript.

MessageRun

Message.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Message</title>
     <script>
     function Run()
     {
          alert('Hello' + '\n' + 'Hola!');
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <input type="button" id="btRun" name="btRun" value="Run" onclick="Run()" />
</body>
</html>


Problem 12
Create a document called Check.htm to ask for confirmation.

CheckRun

Check.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Check</title>
     <script>
     function See()
     {
          var yes = confirm("Do you want to see it?");
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          if (yes == true)
          {
               tbx.style.visibility = 'visible';
          }
     }
     function Hide()
     {
          var yes = confirm("Do you want to hide it?");
          var tbx = document.getElementById("tbxX");
          if (tbx == null) return;
          if (yes == true)
          {
               tbx.style.visibility = 'hidden';
          }
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
     <input type="text" id="tbxX" name="tbxX" value="Hello">
     <input type="button" id="btSee" name="btSee" value="See" onclick="See()" />
     <input type="button" id="btHide" name="btHide"value="Hide" onclick="Hide()" />
</body>
</html>


Problem 13
Create a document called Hiyou.htm to prompt for information.

HiyouRun1

HiyouRun2

HiyouRun3

Hiyou.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Hiyou</title>
     <script>
     function Hi()
     {
          //_________________________________________Prompting Box
          var name = prompt("Please enter your name", "Harry Potter");
          if (name != null && name != "")
          {
               document.write("Hello " + name + "! How are you today?");
          }
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
     <input type="button" id="btCalculate" value="Calculate" onclick="Hi()" />
</body>
</html>


Tip
You may include javascript code inside an html document; however, you may also have a separate javascript file with the extension *.js, and then include the javascript file as shown below.

Hello.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Hello</title>
     <script type="text/javascript" src="main.js">
     </script>
</head>
<body>     
</body>
</html>


Problem 14
A variable in javascript is declared using the keyword var as shown below. The variable data type is defined as soon as the first value is stored in the variable.

MyVariableRun

MyVariable.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>MyVariable</title>
     <script>
     var first_name = "Mary";
     document.write(first_name);
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 15
Javascript supports the if-else control sequence. Create a web page called MyDay.htm to test the if-else control sequence. Use the re-load button in your explorer to test the web page. It is very important not to use Date and javascript for important transaction operations, instead you must use the date in the web server.

MyDayRun1

MyDayRun2

MyDay.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>MyDay</title>
     <script>
     var d = new Date();
     var time = d.getSeconds();
     if (time < 10)
     {
          document.write("Good morning: " + d.getSeconds().toString());
     }
     else
     {
          document.write("Good day: " + d.getSeconds().toString());
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 16
Javascript supports the switch control sequence. Create a web page called Eight.htm to test the switch control sequence. Use the re-load button in your explorer to test the web page.

EightRun1

EightRun2

EightRun3

Eight.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Eight</title>
     <script>
     var current_time = new Date();
     var seconds = current_time.getSeconds();
     var x = seconds%5;
     switch(x)
     {
     case 0:
          document.write("Pizza " + seconds);
          break;
     case 1:
          document.write("Tamales " + seconds);
          break;
     case 2:
          document.write("Spagetti " + seconds);
          break;
     case 3:
          document.write("Fish " + seconds);
          break;
     default:
          document.write("Tortilla " + seconds);
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 17
Javascript supports the for control sequence. Create a web page called List.htm to test the for control sequence.

ListRun

List.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>List</title>
     <script>
     for (i = 0; i <= 5; i++)
     {
          document.write("The number is " + i);
          document.write("<br />");
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 18
Javascript supports the while control sequence. Create a web page called Hasta.htm to test the while control sequence.

HastaRun

Hasta.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Hasta</title>
     <script>
     i=0;
     while (i<=5)
     {
          document.write("El numero es " + i);
          document.write("<hr />");
          i++;
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 19
Javascript supports the do-while control sequence. Create a web page called Until.htm to test the do-while control sequence.

UntilRun

Until.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Until</title>
     <script>
     i = 0;
     document.write("The numbers are: ");
     do
     {
          document.write(i.toString());
          document.write(", ");
          i++;
     }
     while (i <= 5);
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 20
Javascript supports the break and continue control sequences. Create a web page called Sigue.htm to test the break and continue control sequences.

SigueRun

Sigue.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Sigue</title>
     <script>
     var i=0;
     for (i=0;i<=10;i++)
     {
          if (i==6) break;
          if (i==3) continue;
          document.write("The number is " + i);
          document.write("<br />");
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 21
Javascript supports functions and it is possible to pass values to the functions. Create a web page called Passing.htm to test a function. Observe how both buttons call the same function passing a different argument value.

PassingRun1

PassingRun2

Passing.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Passing</title>
     <script>
     function Show(name)
     {
          var tbx_name = document.getElementById('tbxName');
          if (tbx_name == null) return;
          tbx_name.value = name;
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
     <input type="text" name="tbxName" id="tbxName" />
     <input type="button" name="btRobert" id="btRobert" value="Option 1" onclick="Show('Robert')" />
     <input type="button" name="btMary" id="btMary" value="Option 2" onclick="Show('Mary')" />
</body>
</html>


Problem 22
A function can take parameters and return a value. Create a web page called Paint to illustrate how to return a value from a function.

PaintRun

Paint.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Paint</title>
     <script>
     function area(width, height)
     {
          return width*height;
     }
     function Show()
     {
          var a = area(10.0, 5.5);
          var tbx_area = document.getElementById("tbxArea");
          if (tbx_area == null) return;
          tbx_area.value = a.toString();
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
     <input type="text" name="tbxArea" id="tbxArea" />
     <input type="button" name="btCalculate" id="btCalculate" value="Calculate" onclick="Show()" />
</body>
</html>


Problem 23
Create a web page called Brand to test arrays in javascript.

BrandRun

Brand.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Brand</title>
     <script>
     var x;
     var mycars = new Array();
     mycars[0] = "Ford";
     mycars[1] = "Volvo";
     mycars[2] = "BMW";

     for (x in mycars)
     {
          document.write(mycars[x] + "<br />");
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 24
Javascript supports the try-catch control sequence. Create a web page called MyError.htm to test the try-catch control sequence.

MyErrorRun

MyError.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>MyError</title>
     <script>
     try
     {
          adddlert("Welcome guest!");
     }
     catch(err)
     {
          var info="There was an error on this page.\n\n";
          info += "Error description: " + err.description + "\n\n";
          info += "Click OK to continue.\n\n";
          document.write(info);
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 25
Create a web page called Reloj to test a timer in javascript. The example calls "alert", however, it is possible to call any function including any function created by the programmer.

RelojRun

Reloj.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Reloj</title>
     <script>
     var t = setTimeout("alert('I am displayed after 3 seconds!')", 3000);
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


Problem 26
Create a web page called Fecha to test dates in javascript.

FechaRun

Fecha.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Fecha</title>
     <script>
     var today = new Date();
     document.write(today);
     document.write("<hr />");
     document.write(today.getTime() + " milliseconds since 1970/01/01");
     document.write("<hr />");
     today.setFullYear(1992,10,3);
     document.write(today);
     document.write("<hr />");
     document.write("Original form: ");
     document.write(today + "<br />");
     document.write("To string (universal time): ");
     document.write(today.toUTCString());
     document.write("<hr />");
     //____________________________
     var weekday=new Array(7);
     weekday[0]="Sunday";
     weekday[1]="Monday";
     weekday[2]="Tuesday";
     weekday[3]="Wednesday";
     weekday[4]="Thursday";
     weekday[5]="Friday";
     weekday[6]="Saturday";
     document.write("Today is " + weekday[today.getDay()]);
     document.write("<hr />");
     //_____________________________
     var h = today.getHours();
     var m = today.getMinutes();
     var s = today.getSeconds();
     document.write(h + ":" + m + ":" + s);
     //
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large">
</body>
</html>


onload Event

This event is fired when the page loads, thus it is called only once. The following problem illustrates how to use the onload event.

Problem 27
Create a web page called GoAround to test dates and timers in javascript.

GoAroundRun

GoAround.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>GoAround</title>
     <script type="text/javascript">
     function startTime()
     {
          var today=new Date();
          var h=today.getHours();
          var m=today.getMinutes();
          var s=today.getSeconds();
          // add a zero in front of numbers<10
          m = checkTime(m);
          s = checkTime(s);
          document.getElementById('info').innerHTML = h+":"+m+":"+s;
          t=setTimeout('startTime()',500);
     }

     function checkTime(i)
     {
          if (i<10) i="0" + i;
          return i;
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF;font-size:x-large" onload="startTime()">
     <span id="info"></span>
</body>
</html>


Problem 28
Create a web page called Cadenas to test strings in javascript.

CadenasRun

Cadenas.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Cadenas</title>
     <script>
     var text = "Hello World!";
     document.write(text.length + "<hr />");
     //
     document.write(text.indexOf("d") + "<br />");
     document.write(text.indexOf("WORLD") + "<br />");
     document.write(text.indexOf("World") + "<hr />");
     //
     document.write(text.match("world") + "<br />");
     document.write(text.match("World") + "<br />");
     document.write(text.match("worlld") + "<br />");
     document.write(text.match("world!") + "<hr />");
     //
     document.write(text.replace("Hello","Hola"));
     //
     var parents = ["John", "Mary"];
     var brothers = ["George", "Jim", "Sam"];
     var children = ["Peter", "Julie"];
     var family = parents.concat(brothers, children);
     document.write(family + "<hr />");
     //
     var fruits = ["Banana", "Orange", "Apple", "Mango"];
     document.write(fruits.join() + "<br />");
     document.write(fruits.join("+") + "<br />");
     document.write(fruits.join(" and ") + "<hr />");
     //_____________________________________
     document.write(fruits.sort());
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
</body>
</html>


Problem 29
Create a web page called Follow to test sorting numbers in Javascript. Observe that the sort function may take a sorting function to introduce the criterion to perform the sorting.

FollowRun

Follow.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Follow</title>
     <script>
     function sortNumber(a, b)
     {
          return a - b;
          // return b - a;
     }
     var n = ["800", "10", "5", "40", "25", "100", "1"];
     document.write(n.sort(sortNumber));
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
</body>
</html>


Problem 30
Create a web page called Mate to test some Math functions in Javascript.

MateRun

Mate.htm
<html>
<head>
     <title>Mate</title>
     <script>
     document.write("round: " + Math.round(0.60) + "<br />");
     document.write("floor: " + Math.floor() + "<br />");
     document.write("max: " + Math.max(5, 10) + "<br />");
     document.write("min: " + Math.min(5, 10) + "<br />");
     document.write("random: " + Math.random());
     </script>
</head>
<body style="background:#C0C0FF">
</body>
</html>


Problem 31
Use Javascript to implement the program described Wintempla > Arrays > Review > Problem 4 and Problem 5. Files: TaylorDyn.htm and TaylorDyn.js. toFixed is used to convert a float value to string with the specified number of digits after the decimal point.

TaylorDyn

TaylorDynRun

Problem 32
Use Javascript to implement the program described Wintempla > Sentente For > Review > Problem 19. Files: Integral.htm and Integral.js. Observe that the radio buttons must have the same name but different id. Use the HTML tag: textarea to create a multiline textbox. To set the text of a textarea you can use the innerText property of the textarea.

Integral.htm
...
<textarea id="tbxOutput" name="tbxOutput" rows="22" cols="70">
</textarea>
...


Integral.js
function btCalculate_click()
{
     ...
     var radioSimpson = document.getElementById("radioSimpson");
     if (radioSimpson == null) { alert('radioSimpson is missing'); return; }
     var isSimpsonMethod = radioSimpson.checked;
     ...
     var text = "";
     ...
     tbxOutput.innerText = text;
}


IntegralRun

Problem 33
Use Javascript to implement the program described Wintempla > Member Variables > Review > Problem 3. Files: CalculatorIMC.htm and CalculatorIMC.js
Use Javascript para implementar el programa descrito en Wintempla > Member Variables > Review > Problem 3. Archivos: CalculatorIMC.htm y CalculatorIMC.js

CalculatorIMCRun

Problem 34
Create file called StyleOne.htm to learn how to manipulate CSS styles from Javascript.
Cree un archivo llamado StyleOne.htm para aprender como manipular estilos CSS desde Javascript.

StyleOneRun

StyleOne.htm
<html>
<head>
     <script>
     function show()
     {
          var text = "";
          //___________________________________________ one
          var one = document.getElementById("one");     
          if (one.sytle == null) text += "one has no style\n";
          //___________________________________________ two
          var two = document.getElementById("two");
          text += "two has color: ";
          text += two.style.color;
          text += "\n";
          //___________________________________________ three
          var three = document.getElementById("three");
          text += "three has color: ";
          if (three.style.color.length == 0)
          {
               text += "None";
          }
          else
          {
               text += three.style.color;
          }
          text += "\n";
          text += "three has background-color: ";
          text += three.style.backgroundColor;
          text += "\n";
          //___________________________________________ four
          var four = document.getElementById("four");
          text += "four has text-align: ";
          text += four.style.textAlign;
          text += "\n";
          //___________________________________________ Display
          alert(text);
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body>
     <span id="one">Uno</span><br />
     <span id="two" style="color:#0000FF">Dos</span><br />
     <span id="three" style="background-color:#C0C0FF">Tres</span><br />
     <span id="four" style="text-align:left">Cuatro</span><br />
     <input type="button" onclick="show()" value="Show" />
</body>
</html>


GUI and Javascript

There are many functions to manipulate GUI elements, such as: textbox, button, drop down list, radio button, check box, etc.
Hay muchas funciones para manipular elementos GUI, tales como: cajas de textos, botones, listas desplegables, radio buttons y check boxes, etc.

Problem 35
Create a file called GuiGold.htm to learn how to manipulate GUI elements (input tags) from Javascript.
Cree un archivo llamado GuiGold.htm para aprender como manipular elementos GUI (input tags) desde Javascript.

GuiGoldRun

GuiGold.htm
<html>
<head>
     <script>
     function show()
     {
          var text = "";
          //___________________________________________ one
          var one = document.getElementById("one");
          text += "one: " + one.name + ", " + one.value + "\n";
          //___________________________________________ two
          var two = document.getElementById("two");
          text += "two: " + two.name + ", " + two.value + "\n";
          //___________________________________________ three
          var three = document.getElementById("three");
          text += "three: " + three.name + ", " + three.value + "\n";
          //___________________________________________ four
          var four = document.getElementById("four");
          text += "four: " + four.name + ", " + four.value + "\n";
          //___________________________________________ five
          var five = document.getElementById("five");
          var itemCount = five.options.length;
          var j;
          for (j = 0; j < itemCount; j++)
          {
               if (five.options[j].selected == true)
               {
                    text += "five: " + five.name + ", " + five.options[j].value + " SELECTED\n";
               }
               else
               {
                    text += "five: " + five.name + ", " + five.options[j].value + "\n";
               }
          }
          //___________________________________________ Display
          alert(text);
     }
     </script>
</head>
<body>
     <input type="text" id="one" name="1" value="Uno" /><br />
     <input type="password" id="two" name="2" value="Dos" /><br />
     <input type="hidden" id="three" name="3" value="Tres" /><br />
     <textarea id="four" name="4">Cuatro</textarea><br />
     <select id="five" name="5">
          <option value="white">Blanco</option>
          <option value="black" selected>Negro</option>
     </select><br />
     <input type="button" onclick="show()" value="Show" />
</body>
</html>


XML in Javascript

Because AJAX has become very popular in the last years, there are many functions to manipulate XML from Javascript. To learn how to send an HTTP Request using Javascript, see Wintempla > Sockets > HTTP.
Porque AJAX ha comenzado a ser muy popular en los últimos años, hay muchas funciones para manipular XML desde Javascript. Para aprender a enviar una Solicitud de HTTP usando Javascript, vea Wintempla > Sockets > HTTP.

Parser

The input of a parser is a block of text. The parser must interpret the information in the text so that this information can be manipulated programmatically. There are parsers for: HTML, CSS, Javascript, XML, ...
La entrada de un parseador es un bloque de texto. El parseador debe interpretar la información en el texto de tal forma que esta información pueda ser manipulada programaticamente. Existen parseadores para: HTML, CSS, Javascript, XML, ...

Problem 36
Create file called XmlSilver.htm to learn how to manipulate XML from Javascript.
Cree un archivo llamado XmlSilver.htm para aprender como manipular XML desde Javascript.

XmlSilverRun

XmlSilver.htm
<html>
<head>
     <script>
     //___________________________________ Create some XML text
     var text = "<client_list>";
     text += "<client>";
     text += " <client_name>John Miller</client_name>";
     text += " <age>25</age>";
     text += "</client>";
     text += "<client>";
     text += " <client_name>Mary Young</client_name>";
     text += " <age>75</age>";
     text += "</client>";
     text += "</client_list>";
     //__________________________________ Convert from text to XML
     var xmlDoc = null;
     if (window.DOMParser != null)
     {
          var parser = new DOMParser();
          xmlDoc = parser.parseFromString(text, "text/xml");
     }
     else // Internet Explorer
     {
          var xmlDoc = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLDOM");
          xmlDoc.async = false;
          xmlDoc.loadXML(text);
     }
     //__________________________________ Travel the Nodes
     var client_list = xmlDoc.documentElement;
     var client = client_list.childNodes;
     //var client = client_list.getElementsByTagName("client");
     var count = client.length;
     var i = 0;
     var client_name;
     var age;
     var result = "Number of child nodes = " + count + "<br />";
     for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
     {
          client_name = client[i].getElementsByTagName("client_name");
          age = client[i].getElementsByTagName("age");
          try
          {
               result += client_name[0].firstChild.nodeValue + ", ";
               result += age[0].firstChild.nodeValue + "<br />";
          }
          catch (errorInfo)
          {
               continue;
          }
     }
     document.write(result);
     </script>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>


Tip
Advantages of Javascript:
  1. It can be executed on any device that has an Web browser
  2. It allows executing code in the Web client
Disadvantages of Javascript:
  1. Poor performance
  2. Errors are detected during execution

Ventajas de Javascript:
  1. Pude ser ejecutado en cualquier dispositivo que tenga un Navegador de Internet
  2. Permite ejecutar código en un cliente Web
Desventajas de Javascript:
  1. Desempeño pobre
  2. Los errores se detectan en el momento de la ejecución

Problem 37
Is it possible to create a Web site without Javascript? What limitations does a Web site have when Javascript is not used?
Es posible crear un sitio Web sin usar Javascript? Que limitaciones tiene un sitio Web que no usa Javascript?

Problem 38
When should I use the HTML <form ... > tag?

Problem 39
What is the difference between name and id in an input tag? Can Javascript access the hard drive of a computer? Can Javascript access the sockets of a computer?

Problem 40
Complete the table by putting a mark in the respective column or columns.
Complete la tabla colocando una marca en la columna o columna respectivas.

Provides    HTML    CSS    Javascript  
It controls the information in page               
It controls where the information is displayed in the page               
It provides arithmetic operations               
It controls how the information looks like (colors, fonts, etc.)               
It creates GUI elements (textboxes, radio buttons, etc.)               
It manipulates GUI elements (textboxes, radio buttons, etc.)               
It provides programming control sentences               
It is required to create a web page               
It is optional to create a web page               
It is used to create a web page               
It is used to create a web application               
It is interpreted in the Web browser               

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